Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unaware of the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is in fact quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. Should you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are currently in the process of experiencing a miscarriage, you may well be wondering what caused the loss and worry about whether it’ll happen again. This article aims to answer the next questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What sort of genetic testing is available for miscarriage tissue?
How can chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most common cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. miscarriage Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes that come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a child to develop normally it is essential that it have the right amount of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or within an embryo or fetus can cause a woman to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a child with a chromosome syndrome such as Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are due to chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep upsurge in women older than 35.

Pregnancy Loss – How Common could it be?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than a lot of people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of having a miscarriage also increases as a mother gets older.

Most women who experience a miscarriage go on to get a healthy pregnancy rather than miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more prone to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage is apparently increasing. One reason for this can be awareness – more women know they are having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas previously the miscarriage would have appeared to be just a unique period. Another reason could be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Helpful for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually identifies many types of testing that can be done on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also known as products of conception (POC), the most useful type of test to perform is a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also called chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the current presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are caused by aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue can often identify the reason for the pregnancy loss.

The most common approach to chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as for example microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. For this reason requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is frequently unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or even more of miscarriage samples neglect to grow and thus no results are available. Additionally, karyotyping is unable to tell the difference between cells from mom (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. If a normal female result is found, it may be the right result for the fetus or it might be maternal cell contamination (MCC) where the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells present in the pregnancy tissue rather than the fetal cells. MCC seems to occur in about 30% or more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months another from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is a new type of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; the two most common forms of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing is also in a position to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you are more likely to receive results and the results are usually returned faster when microarray testing can be used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting a sample of the mother’s blood as well the miscarriage tissue is sent to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the kind of abnormality found could be assessed to help answer the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. Quite often, chromosome abnormalities in an embryo or fetus are not inherited and have a low chance to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a particular chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your doctor to do further studies to investigate the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, in case a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the need for other, sometimes quite costly, studies your physician might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason for a pregnancy loss might help a couple of start the emotional healing up process, moving at night question of “Why did this happen to me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially very important to patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or rule out chromosome errors as the reason for the miscarriages and invite their doctor to pursue other styles of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their likelihood of having an effective healthy pregnancy.